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Chinese2/12/2019English
經文:出埃及記二十章
鑰節:「愛我守我誡命的,我必向他們發慈愛,直到千代。」(20:6)
提要

         十誡是舊約的核心。它們十分重要且獨特,因為它們是上帝親口頒佈的命令,親手寫在法版上,且命令要將法版保存在約櫃堙A作以色列家永遠的紀念,摩西將十誡記在他的書中,好使世世代代的人都能記得、教導、並遵行上帝的誡命。十誡是與我們每天生活有關的道德律;它們是倫理的基礎,在許多方面也成為今天法律的根據。如果人們百分之百的奉行十誡,我們就會有一個完美的社會。

        被贖之民以色列已同意與上帝立約;而上帝要他們守的約就是這十誡。祂首先表達自己的權柄:「我是耶和華你的上帝」──宣告祂的主權、獨一,表明祂是那位救贖他們、以色列民個人的上帝。這個告白乃是內容分為兩部分的十誡的根基:(1)前四誡是關於人對上帝應有的行為和責任;(2)後六誡是關於人對人應有的行為及責任。

        十誡大部分是負面語──「你不可」,因為上帝曉得人的壞心眼。十誡中最顯著的特點在頭二誡:不可有別神,也不可製造任何神像。以色列人在埃及一定受了多神教的影響,因為上帝開宗明義的就以此為誡(20:3、4),然後又向摩西再強調一次(20:23),上帝顯然知道他們的弱點。以色列人不久之後就為自己打造金牛犢(出32:4)。頭兩誡以及接下來的兩誡強調的是尊崇上帝。它們是所有其他誡命的基礎。耶穌也認為這是一個人到上帝面前最基本的態度:主禱文的第一句就是「願您的名為聖」。奇怪的是,即使是信徒,有時也在談話中以輕慢的語氣提上帝的名字;除了用上帝的名字來敬拜祂、榮耀祂、尊崇祂,其餘皆是妄稱耶和華的名(20:7)。第七日向上帝守安息日(停止工作)也是為了尊崇祂。在新約堙A守安息日(第七日)不再是強制的命令,但這個誡命背後的原則仍與我們有關:在七天中要分別出一天休息敬拜上帝。初代教會很自然的就選擇了七日的第一日(星期日),因為那是基督復活的日子。

        十誡的第二部分以一條唯一帶有應許的誡命開始:孝敬父母就必得享長壽(20:12)。不尊敬父母是家庭毀滅的開端,所以遵守這條誡命非常重要。第六誡高舉人生命的尊嚴,因為我們是按著上帝形像造的。這條不准殺人的誡命有時被用來作為反對死刑的理由,但聖經是准許用死刑來處罰犯罪的(出21:12;羅13:4)。在這娷膠芋u殺人」的希伯來文字意思是惡意的謀殺。凡貶低或剝奪人享受上帝所賜豐富、完滿生活的情況,這條誡命都適用。毫無必要的殺害未出生的嬰兒(墮胎)絕對是殺人,因此舉貶低人性,剝奪上帝給嬰兒的生命權。

        第七誡旨在護衛婚姻的崇高神聖;耶穌將它擴充到所有不道德的性思想和行為(太5:27~28)。耶穌在重申十誡時,將所有誡命濃縮成:愛上帝(總結前四誡)和愛人(總結後六誡)(太22:37~40)。十誡中與內心最有關的是最後一誡:不可貪戀;這不是外在的行為,而是一種隱藏在內心的精神狀態,導致所有侵犯鄰舍的罪。基本上,這也就是亞當和夏娃違反上帝旨意所犯的貪欲之罪。我們必須天天讓上帝的聖靈來更新我們的心,使我們有正確的欲望,符合上帝的旨意。

        上帝以不同凡響的方式頒佈十誡,為的是使以色列人對他們聖潔的上帝有一種健康的敬畏和尊崇,好使他們不致犯罪。他們畏懼直接面對上帝,所以從那時起就用一種較不直接的方式──透過摩西、祭壇、和獻祭。今天信徒是藉著我們的中保,耶穌基督,來到上帝面前;祂為我們代禱,所有舊約的祭也都是指向祂。

        人能順服上帝律法的關鍵在於愛上帝(見鑰節)。這是真公義的根源;不愛上帝,光遵守律法也沒有價值。由於人的墮落,我們不能守全上帝的誡命;但即使有人做得到,他的行為也不能帶來拯救。只有相信和愛上帝的獨生子耶穌才能得著救恩;而一旦我們得贖,與上帝有新約的關係,我們就有義務要守祂的誡命。上帝滿有憐憫,因祂的恩典,祂已經賜下聖靈給我們力量;當我們作不到而真誠悔改時,祂又保證我們必得赦免(約壹1:9)。

禱告

        上帝啊,違背您律法的處分就是死。感謝天父,您的兒子耶穌遵守律法從未犯罪,祂為我死,使您能赦免我。奉主耶穌基督聖名,阿們!

English

Scriptures:Read Exodus 20
Key Verse:“But showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.”( Exodus 20:6 )
Overview

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         The Ten commandants in Exodus 20 are the heart of the Old Testament. They are very important and unique for they were spoken with the audible voice of God; they were written down with the finger of God, and He ordered that they be kept in the Ark of the Covenant for the Israelites to keep as a remembrance. Moses recorded them in his writings so all generations would remember, teach and follow God’s commandments. They are the moral law which deals with our everyday life. They are the basis for ethics and in most cases for legislation today. They are the basis for ethics and in most cases for legislation today. If they were followed completely we would be living in a perfect society.

         These commandments of God were given to Israel in the context of the covenant into which they, as a redeemed people, had agreed to enter. God had given them the specific principles on which the covenant is based, expressing His authority as He said, “I am the Lord your God”. He declared His sovereignty, oneness, and that He is their personal God who redeemed them. This was the foundation of the commandments which fall into two sections: (1) the first four deal with man’s conduct and duty toward fellow man.

         Most of the commandments are given in the negative form of “thou shalt not”, because God knows the evil intent of mankind’s heart. The most distinctive feature of these principles is seen in the first two commandments: there is to be no other god, nor is there to be made any image of a god. The Israelites must have been influenced by the polytheism (worship of many gods) in Egypt, for the Lord gave these commandments first (20:23), knowing their weakness. Soon afterwards, they make the image of the golden calf (Exodus 32:4). In these first two, as well as the next two commandments, the reverence of God is emphasized. This forms the basis for all the others. Jesus considered it the basic quality of man’s approach to God as expressed in the first sentence of the Lord’s prayer: “Hallowed be Thy Name”. It is surprising that even believers in ordinary conversation use the Name of God in a light and trivial way, for anything short of using the Lord God’s name in worship, glory and honor is using it in vain (20:7).

         Also in honor and reverence to the Lord, the seventh day was to be a sabbath (cessation from work) unto Him. In the New Covenant, the Sabbath on the seventh day (Saturday) is not set forth as binding, however the general principle behind this command is still relevant to us: having one day of rest out of seven, set aside for worshipping God. The early church naturally chose the first day of the week (Sunday) since it was Christ’s resurrection day.

         The second section begins with the only commandment that is given with a promise: if you honor your parents, you will have a long life (20:12). Disrespect for parents, is the beginning of the destruction of the home, so keeping this commandment is very important. A healthy and stable home life often leads to stability in all areas of life. In the sixth commandment, the sanctity of human life is upheld, since we are made in the image of God. This commandment against murder is sometimes used in opposition to capital punishment which is permissible in the Bible as a punishment for crime (Exodus 21:12; Romans 13:4). The meaning of the Hebrew word used for murder is premeditated killing of another human with evil intent. This commandment is applicable to whatever degrades and deprives a living human being from a full and rich life that God wills he should have. The unnecessary killing of unborn human life in abortion is definitely murder for it is degrading to humanity and takes away the baby’s right to a life God has given.

         The seventh commandment is directed to protect the sanctity of marriage, but Jesus expanded it to include all sexual immorality, both in thought as well as in deed (Matthew 5:27, 28). Jesus, in reaffirming the ten commandments explained them all in a condensed form: love of God sums up the first four commandments, and love to man sum up the last six commandments (Matthew 22:37-40). The most inward of the ten is the last, against covetousness, which is not an external act but a hidden mental state leading to nearly every sin against a neighbor. It was essentially the sin of Adam and Eve in desiring that which was against the will of God. Our minds must be daily renewed by the Spirit of God to only desire that which is right and in keeping with His will.

         The dramatic way in which God gave His commandments was so the Israelites would have a reverence, respect and a healthy hear of their Holy God that they might not sin. They were fearful of approaching God directly, so from then on a less direct way was employed; through the altar and sacrifice. Today, believers go to God through Jesus Christ, our mediator, the One who intercedes on our behalf and to whom all the Old Testament sacrifices pointed.

         The key obeying the law of God comes from loving Him (see key verse). This is the origin of true righteousness, for without love for God, observance of the Law is of no avail. With mankind’s fallen condition, we are unable to keep the commandments of God to perfection; but even if one could, it would not lead to salvation. Only love and faith in Jesus Christ, God’s only begotten Son, brings salvation, them, once redeemed and in the new covenant relationship with Him, it is our obligation to obey His commands. God is merciful, and His grace has sent us His Holy Spirit to give us strength, and when we do fall short and sincerely repent, we have the blessed assurance that He will forgive (1John 1:9).

Prayer

         Lord God, Your punishment for breaking Your law is death. Thank You Father, that your Son Jesus, who always kept Your law, died for Me so that You could forgive Me.


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