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Chinese8/20/2019English
經文:歷代志上十至十一章
鑰節:「大衛日見強盛,因為萬軍之耶和華與他同在。」(11:9)
提要

        從本章起,歷代志內容集中在大衛王身上,記述他建立神聖王朝的經過及後續發展。掃羅的生平及統治不再被提及,因為他的王權已被上帝否決了。唯一提到的是掃羅的死;他的死證實了上帝不再立他和他的後裔為以色列的統治者。另一方面,掃羅的死也為大衛榮登寶座的記載,鋪陳了序曲。總之,歷代志作者在比較掃羅與大衛兩者的生平時,點出一個非常重要的信息:悖逆上帝,帶來毀滅(10:13~14),反之,忠於上帝,帶來祝福。

        既有歷史可考,我們相當確定掃羅是自殺身亡的(10:4;撒上31:4);後來有個亞瑪力人跑去跟大衛說他殺了掃羅,那全然是謊報(撒下1:6~10)。多麼可悲啊!掃羅在年輕時曾是多麼謙沖,前途看似一片光明。根據記載,掃羅會自殺,是因為先中了非利士弓箭手致命的一箭。死後屍體被非利士人發現,擄去,首級被割下置於該族人的廟中,做為戰利品誇勝。邪神大袞竟從掃羅的戰敗及死亡中獲取榮耀,實為一大悲哀!然而細讀經文,我們不難發現,執掌一切的還是上帝。因為上帝要把王權轉賜給大衛,所以容掃羅見殺。「祂殺了他」(10:14)聖經如是說道。

        十章十三、十四節,道出了掃羅敗亡的原因:「他沒有遵守主的話」,這話曾由先知撒母耳親口告訴他。掃羅的生活充滿失敗的事例。他看重個人利慾超過上帝的旨意,還僭越上帝設下的權限。上帝本是應當受尊重、順服,高居為以色列終極元首的。掃羅沒有等候撒母耳,就擅自獻祭(撒上13:8-9)。上帝明明吩咐他要除滅亞瑪力人,他卻故意留下活口,把亞瑪力王亞吉當成戰利品炫耀(撒上15章)。他一再干犯上帝旨意,不僅連連追殺大衛──上帝選立的受膏者,還殘忍屠殺了挪伯城數十位祭司(撒上22:17~19)。

        掃羅對上帝始終不曾懷有真正的謙卑。以撒母耳記下廿八章六節來說,表面上他似乎想求問上帝,其實卻心懷不軌,去向一個女巫尋求指引,結果進一步促成自己的死(10:14;撒上28章)。上帝的指引可以賜人生命,偏偏掃羅寧可選擇巫師和撒但的指示,而走向敗亡。這對永生上帝來說,是何等大的羞辱啊!上帝恨惡巫術、卜卦這類的事,因為這麼做等於崇拜撒但(申18:10~12)。

        顯然,歷代志作者認定讀者們皆已熟知撒母耳記和列王紀這兩卷書,故他把某些歷史細節從略(例如,10:13、14,就只對掃羅的事略提數語而已)。他也沒提到大衛曾在希伯崙領導猶大支派七年的事,他寫到大衛,就直接從他被上帝按立,榮登全以色列王的寶座開始寫起。

        在此,我們也讀到,他做王後第一次軍事行動,即率眾攻下耶布斯人的城,把耶路撒冷立為王國的首都(參考撒下5:6~9)。又讀到,大衛外甥約押,如何由將軍升為全以色列軍的大元帥,因為他第一個破了重防,攻入耶城(代上11:6)。贏了這場戰役後,「大衛便成為偉大」。歷代志作者更詳述大衛之所以偉大,是因「萬軍之耶和華與他同在」(11:9)。既然上帝被稱為萬軍之主,可見大衛的勝利實由上帝替他戰勝的。凡有上帝在同一陣線的人,必會看到最終的勝利!

        此處也提及多位英勇戰士的名字,他們都是在大衛逃亡階段就來跟從他的。他們獲得尊榮,不僅因為表現英勇,更是因為協助了大衛榮登以色列王的寶座。聖經作者特別強調,他們奮勇幫助大衛得國,是照著主上帝的吩咐,也是出於祂的引導(11:10)。上帝在整個人類歷史中,扮演著指揮和協調的工作,以使自己旨意成就。冥冥中,是祂差派人去輔助大衛,鼓舞他的。當時大衛在曠野中過著看似有百害而無一利的流離生活,有時我們的人生也會遭此困境,但上帝凌駕一切之上。祂會適時差人來協助我們,也會讓萬事互相效力,為我們帶來好處。最後,上帝將大衛帶出曠野,讓他在耶城榮登寶座。

禱告

        噢主,您答應與我們時時同在,就如昔日與大衛同在一樣。但願我們不要像掃羅一樣枉法尋私,而像大衛一樣,行事合上帝心意,把您的偉大彰顯出來。奉耶穌基督的名禱告,阿們。

English

Scriptures:Read 1 Chronicles 10 &11
Key Verse:"Then David went on and became great, and the Lord of hosts was with him."(1 Chronicles 11:9)
Overview

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        From this point on, the book of Chronicles begins to deal mainly with King David as the founder of the divinely appointed royal dynasty. The life and reign of Saul is not dealt with, since his kingship had been rejected by God. Only the death of Saul is recorded in Chronicles; this is proof of God's rejection of him and his family as royal rulers over Israel. This account of Saul's death is merely an introduction to the way in which David came to the throne. However, by relating this account, the chronicler gives an important message through contrasting the lives of Saul and David: disobedience to God brings destruction (10:13-14), but faithfulness to Him brings blessing.

        We have confirmation here, as history records, that Saul committed suicide (10:4; 1 Samuel 31:4); he was not killed by the Amalekite who came to David with his false report (2 Samuel 1:6-10). What a tragic end for one who had been so humble and promising in his younger days. We read that the Philistine archers mortally wounded him (10:3), found his body, decapitated it, and hung his head as a trophy in their heathen temple. How sad that the pagan god Dagon received the glory for Saul's defeat and death! The Lord God, however, was the One in control. We read that because it was His plan to turn the kingdom over to David, "He killed him" (10:14).

        We are given the reasons for Saul's death in 10:13 and 14: "he did not keep the word of the Lord" which had been spoken to him through the prophet Samuel. Saul's life reflects a series of failures. He put his own desires above the desires of God and transgressed by going beyond the limits set by God. The Lord was to be obeyed as the supreme sovereign ruler of Israel. Saul was disobedient in not waiting for Samuel to offer the sacrifices (1 Samuel 13:8-9). He disobeyed God's specific command to exterminate the Amalekites and displayed his pride and self-glory by letting Agag, king of the Amalekites, live as his trophy (1 Samuel 15). He continued to do things against the will of God, like trying to kill God's chosen and anointed king, David, and ruthlessly killing the priests at Nob (1 Samuel 22:17-19).

        Saul did not truly humble himself before God. Even though we read in 1 Samuel 28:6 that he tried to inquire of the Lord, his heart was not right to ask or to receive anything from the Lord. Instead, "he consulted a medium for guidance"; this was the second reason given for his death (10:14; 1 Samuel 28). What an insult to the Lord who was able to give guidance which would lead to life; but Saul chose the witch's guidance of Satan which always leads to death (similar story in 2 Kings 1:3-4). God hates witchcraft, for it is really worship of Satan (Deuteronomy 18:10-12).

        Apparently, the chronicler presumes the readers' knowledge of the books of Samuel and Kings and therefore omits some historical facts (e.g. the general statements about Saul in 10:13-14). No mention is made of David's seven-year reign over the tribe of Judah in Hebron, but the history is taken up at the point of David's unanimous kingship over all Israel, as God had ordained.

        We are also told of his first official action as king in taking the Jebusite stronghold of Jerusalem for his royal capital city (cf. 2 Samuel 5:6-9). We are also told of how Joab, David's nephew, retained his position as commander and then won the position of "chief and captain" over the unified army of Israel by being the first to penetrate the strong fortifications of the city (11:6). With this victory, "David went on and became great." The writer says the reason for David's greatness was that "the Lord of hosts was with him" (11:9). The title given to the Lord expresses the truth that God fought David's battles. Those who have God on their side will ultimately see victory!

        Many other heroes are named who came to the support of David while he was still a fugitive hiding from Saul. They are honoured, not only for their feats of bravery, but for helping David become king of Israel. The note is made that they acted in accordance to the will of God, and their support of David was in the providence of God (11:10). God, Himself, orchestrated the events of history in order to see His will accomplished. He sent these men to His servant David to help and encourage him. In a time of difficulty, such as David's time as a fugitive in the wilderness, it is sometimes hard for us to see any good that might come out of it, but God has everything in control. He brings people into our lives to help us, and He truly does work out things for our good. Finally, God brought David out of the wilderness and put him on the throne in Jerusalem.

Prayer

        O Lord, as 'You were with David, You've promised to be with us. Grant that Your greatness will be seen as we walk before You, not like Saul in our own desires, but like David, as people after Your own heart.


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